首頁> 備考資訊>托福閱讀做題關鍵有效技巧分享,善抓邏輯詞縷清段落結構

托福閱讀做題關鍵有效技巧分享,善抓邏輯詞縷清段落結構

2019-06-13 11:09:17瀏覽量:298

啟德考培小編就來給大家說下托福閱讀的關鍵性技巧助力大家提高。

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  托福閱讀的考試除了要求學生有一定的詞匯量以及夯實的語法基礎以外,面對題型非常豐富的考試,掌握一定的閱讀技巧是非常有必要的。下面啟德考培小編就來給大家說下托福閱讀的關鍵性技巧助力大家提高。

  技巧一: 熟用定位法

  托福閱讀的考試一個小時完成三篇,平均每篇20分鐘。20分鐘要包括完成閱讀700字左右的文章,以及12-14到題目,包括看題目以及四個選項。時間是非常緊張的。如果毫無目的的先看文章,在看題目,在回頭找答案是非常耗時的。面對托福的閱讀的主流題型-事實信息題(3-5個/篇)來說,用題目里的關鍵字定位到文章找到關鍵句,然后進行同義轉換,既省時又能提升正確率。那么關鍵詞怎么找?一般來說,就是題目的里的名詞進行有效定位。定位的方法有以下幾類:

  1)專有名詞,比如人名或地名

  2)數字定位(不管是題目里還是答案出現數字,都用數字定位)Paragraph 5 :The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago. This is the time period in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable for humans. It has been suggested that if the environment were capable of supporting breeding populations of bears, there would have been enough food resources to support humans. Fladmark and other believe that the first human colonization of America occurred by boat along the Northwest Coast during the very late Ice Age, possibly as early as 14,000 years ago. The most recent geologic evidence indicates that it may have been possible for people to colonize ice-free regions along the continental shelf that were still exposed by the lower sea level between13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

  題目:According to paragraph 5,the most recent geologic research provides support for a first colonization of America dating as far as back as A)16000 years ago

  B)14000 years ago

  C)12500 years ago

  D)10000years ago

  題目解析:這道題目是答案里出現數字,通過答案的數字直接定位到文章,A答案16000,文章里沒有,暫時先放一下,14000在文章出現的地方有兩個。關鍵句在文章里已用紅色標出。First human colonization應該可以追溯到14000年之前。所以應該是B。

  機考的時候,對于密密麻麻的文字來說,出現數字的時候一定是比較醒目比較容易找到的。

  3)題目里的關鍵詞會原文名詞的同義替換

  原文technical problems與題目里的 technological?inadequacies?想對應

  技巧二:善抓邏輯詞

  邏輯詞的考點在托福閱讀的多種題型中都有反應

  1)事實信息題中以why 開頭的題目,考的就是因果邏輯關系。

  段落里出現“therefore, due to,accordingly,as a result,hence,as“的時候就代表前后是因果的邏輯關系。

  2)句子簡化題

  此題型考察的是句子內部的邏輯關系,可以通過句子中的邏輯詞直接鎖定答案。

  以TPO China Pottery這篇為例

  The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stone wares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament.

  A.While?stonewares?and?porcelains?are?found?throughout?most?historical?

  periods,?religious sculpture?is?limited?to?the?ancient?period.

  B.Religious?sculpture?was?created?in?most?periods,?but?its?history?is?less?

  clear?than?that?of stone wares?or porcelains?because?some old?forms?

  continued?to?be?used?even?when?new?ones?were?developedC.While?stonewares?and?porcelains?changed?throughout?history,?religious?

  sculpture?remained uniform?in?form?and?use.

  D.The?historical?development?of?religious?sculpture?is?relatively?unclear?

  because?religious sculptures?sometimes?resemble?earthenware?architectural?ornaments.

  這句話里面有明顯的兩個邏輯詞“but”和for”。已經非常清楚了表明了這個句子兩個重要的點,for 應該理解為因為。整句話應該理解為:宗教雕塑的傳統貫穿了中國歷史的大部分時期,但是它們不像粗陶器或者瓷器那樣在歷史中描述的那么清楚,因為他包含了陪葬陶瓷的舊工藝,又用到了后來的宗教雕塑和建筑裝飾。那么B答案也有非明顯的相對應的邏輯詞but 和because,直接鎖定B答案。然后在看下句子的表達的意思是完全正確的。

  3) 句子插入題

  此題型考察的是句子與句子之間的內部邏輯關系

  以真題“Origins of the Megaliths”為例

  Renfrew has studied two circumscribed areas, the Scottish islands of Arran and Rousay, to examine this hypothesis more closely. ■He found that a division of the arable land into territories, each containing one megalith, results in units that correspond in size to the individual farming communities of recent times in the same area. ■Each unit supported between 10 and 50 people. ■The labor needed to put up a megalith would probably be beyond the capabilities of a community this size. ■But Renfrew argues that the cooperation of other communities could be secured by some form of recognized social incentive perhaps a period of feasting at which communal building was one of several activities.

  插入的句子:So it might seem that megaliths could not have been used by an individual community to mark its land.

  So 表示結果,結果是這些megaliths 有可能不是一個community在用。那么前面應該會講導致此觀點的原因。D前面“the labor needed to put up a megalith would probably be beyond the capabilities of a community this size”. 修建需要的人手可能超過了一個社區的尺寸(暗示無法完成)。D之后轉折講通過feasting方式解決。

  技巧三: 縷清段落結構跟文章結構

  修辭目的題的題型簡單來說就是考察學生對段落結構的把握。題型會問作者提到的一個example或者文章中做的實驗的目的是什么。Example 跟 experiment 的details不重要。最關鍵要找論點。把握段落結構就能把握住題型。

  小結題也就是所有文章的最后一個題型6選3 的題型,所選的答案是要能反應段落主旨的。

  一般來說例子,具體的details都不能去選擇,因為不能反應段落主旨。答案一定是能反應段落主旨的。此題型考察的是學生能否把握住文章結構。比如現象解釋說明文,一般文章開頭提出現象以后,后面幾個段落都是在解釋為什么會出現此現象的。

  技巧四:否定事實信息題題型技巧

  否定事實信息題就要注意段落里連續出現并列的地方。答案是選擇表達錯誤的那個,可能是原文not mention的信息或者是跟原文信息表達不符的。那么也就說明其他三個選項在原文都有對應的地方,可以通過排除法來選出答案技巧五: 詞匯題題型技巧

  詞匯題是除事實信息題以外的另一大主流題型,該題型的特色是:題量大,難度低。積累詞匯量可以提升學生此題型的正確率,又非常節省時間。那么在考試的過程中遇見生詞或者自己遺忘了單詞,還有什么方法可以提升做詞匯題的正確率呢?

  1) 詞根詞綴法

  homogeneous,這個詞可以拆分三部分homo-gene-ous,home是表示同類的前綴,gene:基因,ous是形容詞常見的后綴,連起來是同一類基因的,有同類組成的。

  2) 通過詞性的褒貶色彩

  TPO 1-2-1. The word “championed” in the passage is closest in meaning to A.changed

  B.debated

  C.created

  D.supported

  champion這個詞名詞的時候是冠軍的意思,這里加了ed 很明顯是動詞用,屬于褒義詞,那么選項里只有D這個詞還是屬于褒義詞,A中性詞,B,貶義詞,C中性詞

  3) 利用句子的邏輯關系去推測單詞的意義。

  4) 切記不要直接帶入,有的時候帶入的那個單詞意思也很通暢,但是題目的詞匯本身是沒有單詞的意思。詞匯題的答案一定要基于單詞本身!

  A flood of ice would then surge into the Southern Sea. With the continued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge into the ocean, causing sea levels to rise even higher, which in turn would release more ice and set in motion a vicious cycle.

  The word "plunge" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) drop

  (B) extend

  (C) melt

  (D) drift

  這個詞匯題很多學生會選擇melt,覺得這個冰融化到海洋里,引起海水位的上升。看上去很說的通。但是plunge這個詞本身沒有融化的意思,而是跌落,所以只能選擇A。

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